Any fundamental illness or disease which may lead to bladder control loss must be addressed. Antibiotics, for instance, are required for the treatment of infections, and medications that reduce the symptoms of an expanded seminal vesicles can reduce urine urgency. A medication may be prescribed to stretch the urethra so that it can store more pee, hence reducing the frequency of urinating. Other medications assist in tightening the sphincter muscles to prevent urine leaks. For situations in which the bladder does not entirely empty, additional medications are utilised to assist in voiding.
Anticholinergic and Muscle Relaxant Medications for Bladder Disorders
Anticholinergic drugs have the potential to alleviate urge incontinence. Anticholinergic refers to a substance that inhibits or opposes the action of specific nerve fibres which enable your urethra to spasm. Some tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), including imipramine (Tofranil, Tofranil PM), nortriptyline (Pamelor), and amitriptyline (Elavil), have potent anticholinergic effects and may be used for the treatment of incontinence. Since the effects of newer, long-acting medications (such as Detrol LA, Ditropan XL, Enabled, and VESIcare) linger throughout the day, they only need to be taken once per day, which is highly handy. In addition, the majority of Detrol and Detrol LA’s actions are confined to the bladder, hence reducing the frequency of adverse effects commonly induced by anticholinergics (for example, dry mouth and blurry vision).
- How anticholinergics work:Anticholinergics improve the bladder’s capacity to store pee. These medications help reduce the tension associated with the need to urinate.
- Who should not use these drugs:The following circumstances exclude individuals from using anticholinergics:
o Sensitivity to anticholinergics
o Inadequate management of narrow-angle glaucoma
o Urinary or intestinal blockage
- Use.All anticholinergic medications are available in tablet or capsule form. The daily dosage and number of doses vary based on the medication. In addition, oxybutynin is available as a twice-weekly topical patch (Oxytrol) that is administered to the skin.
- Drug or food interactions:Use caution while taking other drugs that may induce anticholinergic effects, such as antihistamines, drugs used to treat depression or schizophrenia, and some drugs used to treat heart-rhythm disorders. These kinds of medicines may increase the risk of adverse effects since they have comparable effects to anticholinergic drugs.
- Side effect. Common adverse effects include dry mouth, impaired eyesight, and constipation. There are reports of pulses and arrhythmia (rapid heartbeat). The capacity to properly perspire may be diminished.
Alpha-Adrenergic Stimulators for Bladder Problems
This category of medications include midodrine (Pro-Amatine) and pseudoephedrine (Sudafed). The sympathetic nervous system, which regulates several involuntary bodily activities, is mimicked by alpha-adrenergic medications. Although not authorised by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bladder control issues, these medications have been given for the treatment of stress incontinence.
- How alpha-adrenergic stimulators work:By tightening the sphincter muscle and relaxing the bladder wall, these medications help the bladder retain pee. These measures prevent pee leaks caused by sudden increases in bladder pressure, such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, or bending over.
- Who should not use these drugs:The following circumstances prohibit the use of alpha-adrenergic stimulators:
o Allergy to alpha-adrenergic stimulators
o Renal disease
o Elevated blood pressure
o Thyroid dysfunction
- Use:Alpha-adrenergic stimulants are available as pills and capsules for administration. The daily dosage and number of doses vary based on the medication.
- Drug or dietary interactions:These medications may negate the effects of hypertension treatment. Do not use within two weeks of using monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) such as phenelzine (Nardil), pargyline (Eutonyl), nialamide (Espril, Niamid), moclobemide (Aurorix, Manerix), or procarbazine (Matulane) (Enerzer, Marplan). MAOIs have been associated with extreme elevations in blood pressure.
- Side effect:Alpha-adrenergic stimulators may elevate blood pressure, induce sleeplessness, and/or exacerbate illnesses such as diabetes, heart-rhythm abnormalities, heart disease, glaucoma, and enlarged prostate.
Cholinergic Drugs for Bladder Problems
This category of medicines contains bethanechol (Duvoid, Urecholine). Cholinergic refers to nerve cells or fibres that employ a certain neurotransmitter to transmit information throughout the body. When the bladder is not completely emptied after urine, cholinergic medications are utilised. This condition is known as bladder urine retention.
- Function of cholinergic drugs:These medications compress the bladder, allowing for total emptying.
- Who should not use these drugs:The following circumstances prohibit the use of cholinergic medications:
o Thyroid dysfunction (hyperthyroidism)
o Peptic ulcer disease
o Bradycardia (slow heart rate) or hypotension
o Parkinson’s condition
o Urinary or intestinal blockage
- Use: Cholinergic medications are administered orally and on an empty stomach (that is, one hour before eating or two hours after).
- Drug or food interactions:Cholinergic medicines may augment the effects of other pharmaceuticals with cholinergic properties, such as tacrine (Cognex), donepezil (Aricept), galanthamine (Reminyl), and rivastigmine (Exelon or Exelon Patch). It is possible that anticholinergic medications (such as those listed above) will diminish the effects of cholinergic drugs.
- Side effect:Cholinergic medications may induce nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, watery eyes, headache, dizziness, irregular heartbeat, wheeze, and/or breathing difficulties. Consult a physician if any of the above symptoms arise.
Beta Agonists for Bladder Problems
Mirabegron (Myrbetriq) belongs to a class of drugs that function by relaxing the bladder muscle during the storage phase, hence enhancing the bladder’s capacity to store more pee. They can be utilised to treat overactive bladder (OAB). In this category, Mirabegron (Myrbetriq) is the first medication.
- The mechanism of action of beta-agonist drugs: They function by relaxing bladder muscles and decreasing bladder hyperactivity.
- Who should not use this drug: People with the following conditions should not take mirabegron or medications in a related class:
o Sensitivity to this medication
o elevated blood pressure
o End-stage liver disease
o End-stage renal illness
- Side effects of mirabegron include: Mirabegron can cause hypertension, urine retention (inability to completely empty the bladder), dry mouth, irritation of the nasal passages, and constipation.
- Use:With or without food, Mirabegron may be taken orally. It must be swallowed without crushing or chewing.
- Drug or dietary interactions: Patients taking additional drugs for leaky bladder should contact their doctor. Mirabegron can intensify the activity and side effects of some drugs.
Other Urinary Tract Control Medication
If an enlarged prostate is believed to be the source of urine incontinence symptoms, many drugs might be prescribed to alleviate these symptoms. The prostate gland wraps around the urethra (the urine outlet from the bladder), and if it is enlarged, it may constrict the urinary route, making bladder emptying more difficult and incomplete.
For the treatment of urinary symptoms resulting from a swollen prostate (prostatic hypertrophy), the following categories are available:
- Alpha-blockers, including terazosin (Hytrin), doxyzosin (Cardura), alfuzosin (Uroxatral), silodosin (Rapaflo), and tamsulosin (Flomax), act by relaxing the muscles around the urethra and prostate, making urination more pleasant and thorough. Within a few weeks, these drugs begin to alleviate symptoms, but they have little effect on prostate size.
- Finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart) are 5-alpha reductase inhibitors that reduce the size of the prostate gland. It may take many months for them to take effect.
Injection of Botox for Bladder Problems
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has just authorised Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA) injection for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in individuals who have not responded to usual therapy with anticholinergic drugs.
Overactive bladder is a kind of urine incontinence characterised by overactive bladder muscles, resulting in frequent bladder constriction and, consequently, frequent need to pee. Botox may be administered directly into the bladder using a cystoscope (catheter with a camera going into the bladder via the urethra).
Common Botox injectable adverse effects include insufficient voiding, urinary tract infection, and painful urination.